Dedicated to diseases long considered to be treated by the antibiotic and vaccine response, or confined to developing countries, infectious diseases research has returned to the forefront. In this report, the Court of Accounts focuses on the resources allocated to research in infectiology, as well as its management and coordination. While the SARS-CoV-2 health crisis has reminded us that emerging infectious diseases constitute a universal
threat, it has also highlighted the lack of preparation, anticipation and priority given by France to the fight against these diseases. While French research had succeeded in demonstrating its success in the fight against AIDS, particularly in terms of coordination and funding, the rest of research in infectiology did not benefit from the same structures, despite signs of early warning consisting of recurrent epidemic episodes at the global level (such as H1N1 and Ebola). To ensure that research on infectious diseases can ultimately be made a national priority, the Court makes five audit recommendations.