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30 June 2022
Public thematic report
Ten years after the Department of Mayotte was created, and while the Government has
made one plan after another in its favour, the situation of Mayotte remains atypical within
the Republic. In sixty years, the archipelago has seen its population multiplied by 12 and it
now has the highest population density in overseas France, due to both very dynamic
endogenous growth and high illegal immigration. At the same time, the period following
departmenthood has seen, despite real progress in the standard of living of its inhabitants,
a sharp deterioration in security and quality of life conditions (transport, water,
environment, housing). Crime has reached such a level that security has become the primary
concern of inhabitants. In terms of education, it is also difficult to catch up, as half the
population does not speak French. In the report published today, the financial courts (Court
of Accounts and the Mayotte Regional Chamber of Accounts) stress that the services of the
central Government and the Department of Mayotte do not manage to provide the
solutions expected by the people of Mayotte on social, economic, and societal levels. In
order to contribute to a strategic reflection on the sustainable development of Mayotte, the
Court is making some recommendations aimed at consolidating the action of the public
authorities and strengthening the fight against illegal immigration.
Faced with the challenges of territorial development, local institutions are struggling to
consolidate their actions
If local institutions are struggling to establish their development actions, it is mainly because
the central Government services in Mayotte report difficulties in hiring administrative staff
who, moreover, do not stay on the job long enough to ensure the continuity of their actions. In
addition, the prefecture does not have the means and organisation to perform its role as a
manager and coordinator of central Government action, because, apart from recruiting
difficulties, the context of recurring emergencies prevents the prefectural service from taking
action over time and developing or managing projects that meet the local challenges. For its
part, the department must strengthen its human resources, management control, and IT
systems functions in order to have a management base that guarantees the proper
implementation of policies formalized by contract. In previous reports, the Mayotte Regional
Chamber of Accounts made recommendations on the monitoring of the public service
concession for the port of Longoni, on the land disputes and the addressing of properties, on
the central Government's steering of the departmenthood process, and on the multi-year
scheduling of the central Government's financial commitment and public facilities. However,
those recommendations were little or just partially followed by the department and the central
Government, which affected the monitoring of the development plans and the recovery of the
Central Government development plans: ambitious commitments, uneven implementation
While the 2014 "Mayotte 2025" plan included a consensual roadmap, and the 2018 plan
included €1.3
billion in central Government spending, some of the measures that were quickly
initiated have been halted due to political or prefect changes. For example, monitoring of the
"Mayotte 2025" plan was discontinued after one year, and for the 2018 plan there is no
updated monitoring document or data on its implementation, apart from a table filled in by the
prefecture at the Court's request. Therefore, although the commitments made by the central
Government are substantial, it remains difficult to assess the amount of the additional effort
made. Public action in Mayotte unfolds in fits and starts, without the linkage between one plan
and the next one being established. This is because neither the prefecture of Mayotte nor the
Directorate General for Overseas France has teams dedicated to monitoring these plans and,
under these conditions the dispersed, centralised services of the central Government are not
encouraged to produce monitoring documents or to document their actions.
The central Government's responses have not provided all the solutions expected
In the 2018 Plan for the Future of Mayotte, the majority of the state's responses to the
demands of the people of Mayotte focused on law and order. However, crime statistics show
that the situation continues to deteriorate in this area. In addition, responses to social problems
remain inadequate: the health care supply remains below national standards, housing
construction remains far below needs (39% of housing is insecure) and there are still difficulties
in accommodating children in schools (221 schools are full). The spatial planning policy also
reveals significant limitations. Only resolute central Government action, given the necessary
technical and financial resources and steered with constancy, can bridge the gap with mainland
French standards. Without calling departmenthood or decentralization into question, the
central Government must strengthen its capability to lead the development of the territory, in
a governance combining the department and the other communities. The central Government
must also assume its authority when necessary, which it will do all the better if its own
commitments have been met.
Read the report
Emmanuel Kessler
Director of Communications
+33 (0)1 42 98 55 62
+33 (0)6 62 48 07 81
Julie Poissier
Head of Press Relations
01 42 98 97 43
06 87 36 52 21
Court of Accounts
Court of Accounts