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A -
The reinforcement plans did not make it possible to improve
the performance of the police missions in proportion to the
resource allocated
B -
The sharing of security missions has accelerated in recent
C -
The wage bill absorbed most of the budgetary efforts
D -
The organization of work remains unsuitable
E -
The means of operation and equipment are lacking
A -
Staff allocation must be more closely aligned with the needs of
the territories and the missions
B -
A necessary adaptation of the organization of working time to
operational needs
C -
Training to be strengthened and modernized
Synergies to be developed with the National Gendarmerie and
municipal police
This policy paper is part of a body of work intended to present, on several major public
policies, the main challenges that public decision-makers will face in the coming years and the
levers that could make it possible to meet those challenges. This series of publications, which
runs from October to December 2021, is a follow-up on the June 2021 report submitted to the
President of the Republic, entitled, Exiting from crisis: A public finance strategy. That paper
identifies structural issues, it offers a diagnostic resulting from previous works by the Court as
well as guidelines for long-term growth, while strengthening the equity, effectiveness, and
efficiency of public policies.
The Court, in accordance with its constitutional mission of informing citizens, wished to
develop a new approach, one that is different from its usual work, and thus contribute, through
this series of deliberately concise and targeted documents, to the public debate, while taking
care to leave open various possible avenues for reform.
This report was deliberated by the 4th chamber and approved by the Court of Accounts'
Publication and Planning Committee.
Publications of the Court of Accounts are accessible online on the website of the Court
and the regional and territorial chambers of accounts:
For several years, the National Police have been confronted with major security
challenges and high expectations from citizens. To cope with this, they have enjoyed significant
additional resources, as evidenced by the 21% increase in its payroll in ten years, and the
increased support from new security players (municipal police, reservists, private security
firms). However, the results they have achieved, particularly in terms of presence on the streets
or solving crime, have not seen any significant improvement, and are even deteriorating.
The recent work of the Court on the subject focuses on the idea that the solution to the
insufficiency of these performances lies above all in a better use and a renewed management
of the human resources of the National Police force. This observation is shared by the ministry,
particularly in its reflections resulting from the white paper on internal security of November
2020 or the Beauvau Security Assessment, organized from February to September 2021.
While the National Police has recently embarked on reforms to make the management of its
resources more efficient, it must still raise its level of requirements in this area in the coming
years, so that the additional resources that are planned, particularly within the framework of
the France Relance recovery plan, make it possible to improve the performance of its security
missions in a way that meets the expectations of our fellow citizens.
To this end, several pathways for action can be used as a priority. Staffing allocations
would benefit from being rethought to better adjust to the needs of the territories and missions,
the organization of work, and more particularly the management of hourly cycles, to be adapted
to operational needs, and training would benefit from being strengthened and modernized in
order to cope with the need to increase the skills of a large workforce; finally, the ministry
should develop staff pooling between the police and the gendarmerie.
Accompanied by an improvement in the tools for measuring the activity and performance
of the National Police, the implementation of such measures would enable lasting efficiency
gains and an effective improvement in the quality of the service provided to citizens.
Key figures:
€ 10 billion
devoted to the National Police payroll,
up 21% over the past
10 years.
A police presence in the field of
, down for 10 years.
From 2014 to 2020, the pass rate for the police officer competitive exam rose from
2% to 18%
of applicants.
A vehicle fleet that is
7 years old
on average, compared to
3 years old
The National Police deal with 65% of criminality in France and represent 60% of the
workforce assigned to internal security, alongside the National Gendarmerie. The action of the
security forces has had to adapt in recent years to numerous crises which have multiplied their
objectives: terrorism from 2015, social movements (mouvements sociaux) in 2016, 2018 and
2019, pandemic in 2020.
After downsizing from 2008, the National Police benefited from three reinforcement
plans, launched after the 2015 terrorist attacks. However, the results they have achieved,
particularly in terms of presence on the streets or solving crime, have not seen any significant
improvement, and have even deteriorated over the period.
Based on the Court’s repeated observati
ons since 2014, improving the human resources
management of the National Police appears to be a source of difficulties, but also as an
essential pathway for improving the performance of the internal security forces.
After the effects of the general review of public policies (politiques publiques), resulting
in a decrease in the number of police officers, successive reinforcement plans led to the hiring
of 8,000 additional police officers from 2015 to 2020. The wage bill increased by 21% from
2010 to 2020, while operating resources stagnated. Staff expenditures now reach €10
or 90% of the Programme 176 - National Police. The work organization, despite recent reforms,
remains inadequate.
A - The reinforcement plans did not make it possible to improve the
performance of the police missions in proportion to the resource allocated
The question of the National Police workforce punctuates political agendas. Since the
2015 terrorist attacks, many plans to add to the police staffing numbers have followed one
another: plan to fight terrorism, plan to fight illegal immigration, security pact, until the
presidential announcements, in 2017, of a “10,000” plan intended to reinforc
e the police and
gendarmerie numbers over President Macron’s five
-year term.
The creation of these jobs appears only partially in the workforce accounting in full-time
equivalent worked (FTE) and its distribution by position was unequal.
Table No. 1: change in the workforce per action of the National Police program
from 2010 to 2020 (FTE)
Source: Court of Accounts using RAP data from Programme 176
National Police
FTE worked
Developments are uneven between the different police missions. The decrease in public
safety and road safety activities offset increases in foreigners and air transport policing, as well
as support activities. The decline in public security activities is, moreover, corroborated by the
observed trend in the commitment rate in the field.
The evolution of the staff commitment rate in the field since 2011 shows a continuous
decline in the presence on public roads, more pronounced for the National Police than for the
Gendarmerie. A new policing doctrine announced in August 2017, the “ev
eryday security
police” has not, for the time being, resulted in a greater police presence in the field.
Graph No. 1: change in the commitment rate of staff in the field since 2011
Source: Annual performance reports annexed to the 2013 to 2020 finance laws (National Police: left axis, National
Gendarmerie: right axis). The National Police commitment rate relates the number of hours devoted to activities outside
the police station to the number of total hours of activity. The Gendarmerie commitment rate relates the annual hourly
volume of activities carried out outside the units, compared to the annual hourly volume of activities of the Gendarmerie
Considering that this indicator does not faithfully reflect the police presence in the field,
the DGPN indicated in its response to the Court that it has decided to replace it with a new
indicator: the volume of hours worked by police patrols in the field, starting from the budget bill
for 2022.
The judicial police, which has to deal with 3.9 million proceedings a year, are also in
difficulty. It no longer attracts experienced police officers and its results are marked by a low
level of solving low and mid-spectrum crimes, corresponding to everyday crime for our fellow
citizens. For several years, the National Police have experienced disaffection with the entire
investigation channel at the national level and more particularly within the remit of the Paris
police prefecture. Thus, in the Paris region, the judicial police officers are insufficient in number
to meet the needs of public security but, through transfers, they find themselves overstaffed in
the provinces, often in general services, unrelated to their judicial competence. This situation
is particularly the result of degraded working conditions in the Paris metro region and results
in a low attractiveness of the investigative posts in the police stations, but also now within the
specialized services of the judicial police.
The difficulty in filling positions results from the overly uniform app
lication of the “corps
and careers” reform, characterized in particular by a sharp drop in the number of officers which
transferred the burden of this mission to the patrol officers’ corps, which are sometimes
reluctant to deal with criminal proceedings. The ministry recently initiated reforms to remedy
this (accelerated advancement, overhaul of the bonus for judicial police officers), the
effectiveness of which should be measured. It also sets itself the ambitious objective of
increasing the number of judicial police officer positions from 17,000 to 22,000 by 2023.
In addition, the rise of specialized services is not always up to the needs. In the case of
economic and financial crime, for example, the specialized services, able to deal with
“economic and financial fraud and offences”, only take charge of 2% of them, leaving the rest
to the non-specialised public security services. However, the low level of training of
investigators from these services on this topic generates very low response rates to the several
hundreds of thousands of cases recorded by the prosecutors’ offices.
Clearance rates, even if they are an imperfect indicator, reveal the difficulties in dealing
with offences by local judicial services.
Table No. 2: clearance rate of the National Police
(as a percentage of the cases reported):
Source: Annual performance reports annexed to budget acts
B - The sharing of security missions has accelerated in recent years
More than 3,600 municipalities have created or strengthened a municipal police force to
meet citizens’ expectations of public order. Today, these police forces have some 35,000
officers and are equipped with a high level of equipment, including video protection and
weapons. Some municipal police are now even almost equal in numbers with the National
Police, as in Cannes for example. If the available data do not allow for a definitive conclusion,
we observe a decrease in the interventions of the National Police force in the cities that have
a municipal police force.
The operational mobilization of municipal police forces has been made possible by the
sometimes very interventionist policing doctrines decided by the mayors, while municipalities
which do not have the means to afford such a force remain confronted with their daily public
order problems.
Likewise, private security activities are a rapidly growing sector. They have seen their
scope expand and cover in particular surveillance, including armed surveillance, security, cash
transport, and personal protection. Employees of private security companies represented
around 183,000 persons in 2019, compared to around 146,000 in 2011.
Finally, following the terrorist attacks in 2015 and 2016, the operational reserves of the
police and the Gendarmerie acquired a new visibility. Faced with the desire for commitment of
our fellow citizens and the need to strengthen the active forces, the use of reserves appeared
to be an appropriate response. Whether in terms of volume, policing conditions, and above all
openness to civil society, this use remains to this day significantly more limited in the police
than in the Gendarmerie. The DGPN has set itself the objective of having 30,000 reservists by
2026, compared to under 7,000 voluntary reservists under contract in the first half of 2021.
The coordination of all these actors has progressed, as evidenced by the mechanisms
implemented at the local level with the municipal police. The “integrated security contracts”
announced by the Government at the end of 2020 aim to strengthen this approach.
C - The wage bill absorbed most of the budgetary efforts
In ten years, the National Police wage bill has increased by 21% and represents 90% of
Programme 176 - National Police expenditures. In 2010, the overall average cost of a FTE of
the programme was € 33.7K and increased by 20% to reach € 40.2K in 2020. The police
experience asymmetric social dialogue which easily honours categorical requests and does
not result in sufficient compensation, in terms of working time or working conditions, for the
benefits obtained. Thus, the measures of the protocols adopted to meet salary expectations or
concluded in the context of the “yellow vests” movement, represented a cost of €416
In the end, the Ministry of the Interior is subjected to demands which erode its budgetary
leeway and constantly confront it with difficulties in absorbing its activity.
Table No.
3: costs of protocols signed in 2016 and 2018 (in € M
Source: Court of Auditors - 2020 budget execution paper on the Security mission
The measures adopted within the framework of these protocols are mainly of a
compensatory nature and the statutory measures do not appear to be justified by proven
operational needs. Bonuses pile up, particularly when they are aimed at retaining officers,
without sufficient verification of their effectiveness. In total, the National Police compensation
scheme includes 77 bonuses, 53 of which are for active staff only. Finally, the acceleration of
advancement and the increase in staff in the highest ranks were decided without any
consideration of the adequacy of ranks for the responsibilities exercised.
D - The organization of work remains unsuitable
Committed to experimenting with new work cycles for more than eight years, the General
Directorate of the National Police (DGPN) is struggling to define a sustainable and coherent
working time organization that meets both operational needs and the arduousness of police
Intended to maintain service continuity and initially designed to provide flexibility, these
cycles are in fact a source of rigidity and complexity in workforce management. This situation
reduces the police presence and intervention capacities in the field while unduly reducing the
annual working time in favour of a growing number of overtime hours, giving rise to the right to
remuneration or to compensatory rest not taken and which allow police officers to retire early.
To date, the DGPN does not have the tools allowing it to precisely determine the average
working time of a police officer.
Indeed, police officers receive overtime which, alongside other specific services, entitles
them to rest time. In total, in 2019, before taking into account the effects of the exceptional
overtime compensation campaign, 52 million hours of rest time (comprising 24 million hours of
overtime, 7 million hours of specific arduous rest time, and 21 million hours recorded in the
time savings account), or the equivalent of more than 33,000 FTEs, still had to be returned to
police officers. Such an accumulation of hours is difficult to absorb by normal means, namely
the rapid taking of compensatory rest and the effective payment of the hours due.
This problem interferes with that of working rhythms, which are too numerous because
they are localized according to highly variable modalities, which hardly coincide with the needs
of the service and therefore unnecessarily generate overtime. Aiming to remedy this situation,
and to put an end to the most costly and unsuitable organizational models, the decree on the
organization of working time in the National Police force, which entered into force on 1 January
2020, reduces the number of hourly cycles which can be retained by operational services. An
effort has been made, in particular, to limit the use of “heavy shifts”,
a form of work organization
that consumes a lot of staff. In view of the very broad diversity of the current organization of
working time, streamlining the working rhythms within the National Police force will require a
strong determination at the central level to be carried out successfully.
E - The means of operation and equipment are lacking
The growth in the wage bill has produced a crowding out effect to the detriment of
equipment and operating expenses. The National Police cannot dispense with a minimum level
of equipment to carry out its missions, which does not allow an investment effort limited to 2%
of the programme credits. All police services are concerned. The construction of three police
stations is subject to funding from the France Relance plan, initiated in the fall of 2020, although
these are recurring expenses. Despite recent vehicle acquisitions, the National Police fleet
shows an average service length of seven years, increasing since 2014, compared to three
years in Germany.
While the capability building plans for the National Police (in all, five successive plans
between 2015 and 2017, totalling €142
million) were implemented, this effort was not
maintained thereafter, while staffing increases were decided at the same time.
The building stock of the National Police does not receive enough funding for upkeep,
much less renovations. In 2016, the Court recommended formalizing a real estate strategy for
the National Police without limiting itself to a multi-year loan program, even though the
dilapidated building stock was poorly known. That recommendation is still valid and moreover
was made a priority in the White Paper on Internal Security.
In 2020, the slowdown in staff expenditures due to the pandemic made it possible to
incur exceptional expenditures, particularly within the framework of what the ministry dubbed
the “Operation Doorknob” in the amount of €26
million to carry out some 3,700 operations at
police and National Gendarmerie facilities, or to purchase equipment. These cyclical efforts
will not be enough, and accentuate the need for a long-term approach.
Also, the presentation of an internal security planning bill could provide visibility for future
essential investments, as well as for the necessary reorganizations, recommended on
numerous occasions by Parliament and by the Court. Police capital expenditures should be
kept at a level commensurate with staffing levels and operational needs.
The increasing allocation of resources does not make it possible to respond to the
difficulties of the National Police. On the one hand, because the allocation of such additional
resources, concentrated on staff and remuneration, was made at the expense of equipment
and investment, on the other hand because it must, in order to be fully effective, be part of a
process of transformation and anticipation. In June 2017, the Court had already stressed that
the allocation of additional resources to the security forces would be of only limited
effectiveness if it was not accompanied by structural reforms, as part of a revised strategy and
policing doctrine for the National Police. However, the position of strategic anticipation and
planning, present in the National Gendarmerie, is not found to the same degree in the police,
which lacks a monitoring and planning position in the face of new criminality phenomena.
There are several pathways for action to increase the efficiency of the police force,
particularly by making a better allocation of staff and by adapting the work organisation to
operational needs, by reinforcing training or even by developing pooling with the National
Gendarmerie and municipal police forces.
A - Staff allocation must be more closely aligned with the needs of the
territories and the missions
The National Police must continue its efforts to improve the allocation of its workforce,
based on the missions carried out, the levels of competence required, and regional specifics.
Until now, it has struggled to build a reference workforce that would take into account both the
quantitative and qualitative staffing needs to carry out its missions: public order and security,
judicial police, intelligence, etc.
A reference workforce built on stable criteria and broken down by region would make it
possible to better calibrate the distribution between positions dedicated to active personnel
and administrative positions. The recent work of the Central Directorate of Public Security is
part of that effort to better allocate staff, and we can only regret that the Paris police
headquarters did not join in the effort. This tool is all the more important as it should make it
possible to measure the lack of supervision linked to the reconfiguration of the National Police
force corps, the effects of which persist despite the decisions recently taken to remedy them.
The shrinking of the officer corps (-40% between 2009 and 2018) has distorted the
pyramid of ranks and has not been offset by the rise in skills of officers and patrol officers.
Given the retirements, the DGPN estimates that the stabilization of the officer corps at its
current level (around 8,000 officers) will only take place in 2023, despite the significant
acceleration in hiring.
The drop in the level of supervision is particularly noticeable in the Paris metro region,
where the police officers to be supervised are younger and less experienced. The increase in
staff in the higher ranks of the Management and Enforcement Corps (constables and
sergeants) directs them towards support and management functions, to the detriment of
command and field tasks; this is particularly the case for the management of judicial police
investigations. The reinforcement plans associated with the fight against terrorism have
sometimes missed their objective, and resulted in the recruitment of patrol officers to
strengthen intelligence and judicial police missions where a higher level of qualification was
Beyond the problem of staffing, there is the problem of identifying supervisory positions
and their distribution among the three corps of the National Police. The ministry itself
recognizes that reflection is necessary on the number and role of supervisors.
In addition, the allocation of staff does not sufficiently take into account the assignment
region. The regional distribution of public security services staff includes significant inequalities
between the districts, with over-staffing or under-staffing with regard population and criminality
levels. In particular, the numbers of investigative units have little correlation with the criminality
Finally, the terms of assignment and transfer result in the vast majority of cadets just out
of the academy being sent to the Paris metro area, where the missions are difficult to perform.
This situation does help to retain staff, nor to ensure their proper distribution.
B - A necessary adaptation of the organization of working time
to operational needs
The working time organization would benefit from being stable and adapted to police
missions. To avoid the current fragmentation of work cycles, it could be broken down by overall
mission (public security, judicial police, public order, etc.) so that the working schemes are
applicable more homogeneously in areas with the same characteristics of the region.
This objective would require the DGPN to expand its inventory of practices in force and
establish a strategic vision that integrates all issues related to the working time of police
officers, in order to establish a limited number of consistent, adapted working schemes.
Finally, a new balance must be struck between payment and compensation for overtime.
The DGPN has made an unprecedented effort in recent years, with the payment of 9 million
hours, totalling €116
M, but the annual flow of overtime has not been stopped despite the
establishment of quotas requested of the heads of service. The system for compensating
overtime should be rethought as a whole by making payment a common law method for settling
overtime, in the same way as taking time off. The success of this reform presupposed in
particular making compensation more attractive by increasing the hourly rate, a revaluation
which took place in November 2020, but without rethinking the entire system.
In return for this revalued rate, the level of hourly compensation should be reviewed in
order to make it less advantageous and thus reduce the flow of overtime, which is still difficult
to control today despite the efforts made over the past two years.
C - Training to be strengthened and modernized
The dynamism of recruitment within the National Police following the reinforcement plans
strained the training system, whose supply did not follow. While in 2012, the DGPN trained
around 500 patrol officers, in 2016 it had to recruit and train more than 4,000 cadets, i.e., an
eight-fold increase; in 2020, more than 3,500 patrol officers were in basic training. The need
to replace more retirements leads to even higher entry forecasts for the coming years.
This situation, combined with the need to quickly assign new patrol officers, with the
objective of “putting blue in the streets”, has led to a reduction in school training time by a third,
cutting it down from 12 to 8 months. This period is followed by a
“training adapted to the first
job”, which cadets undergo with trainee status, but which suffers in practice in the Paris region
from the low supervision rates. The desire to display an increase in the number of police
officers thus had the effect of entrusting the most visible part of police action, the presence on
public roads, to insufficiently trained and supervised police officers.
It should nevertheless be noted that the conclusions of the Beauvau Security
Assessment propose reconsidering this measure and restoring the 12-month school training
course from May 2022. It is all the more essential to provide quality basic training to newly
recruited patrol officers since, although the number of candidates for the patrol officers
competitive exam has changed little, the admission rate has climbed from 2% in 2014 to 18%
in 2020, with consequences on the level of recruits.
The same difficulty is likely to arise for the basic training of officers. In fact, officer
promotions went from an average of 70 cadets over the 2015-2019 period to 370 students as
at 1 September 2021, then 400 students as at 1 September 2022, which forced the academy
to increase the size of the groups and, for lack of trainers, to eliminate certain practical lessons.
Presented in the white paper as one of the new National Police structuring projects, the
creation of a police academy is currently in the planning stage. One of the objectives is to bring
together the training of the three National Police forces in order to strengthen synergies
between them, drawing inspiration from foreign examples which seem to have proved their
worth. Thus, the Avila National Police Academy has been the only institution providing training
to join the Spanish police since 1986. The training is specific for police officers or inspectors,
but the fact that everyone is trained within the same institution develops a feeling of belonging,
which promotes both professional integration and the attractiveness of the profession.
Continuous training is also insufficient: training in weapons and technical skills often falls
short of the qualification requirements. Thus, in Paris, more than a third of the staff had not
carried out the three target practice sessions required to be issued a service weapon, and
nearly 9% of them had not practised at all during the year. The development of training courses
on maintaining order, common to the various forces, should also be encouraged. From this
standpoint, the conclusions of the Beauvau Security Assessment include the very ambitious
objective of increasing the duration of continuous training by 50%.
Finally, the compensation system must be designed to improve the retention of police
officers who choose to train, particularly in the area of judicial police. As the Court has already
pointed out, this situation is particularly significant in the Paris region, where officers, barely
out of the academy, hasten to request a transfer to the provinces.
D - Synergies to be developed with the National Gendarmerie and municipal
The recen
t work of the Court concerning the assessment of the National Gendarmerie’s
attachment to the Ministry of the Interior highlights the importance of the synergies that remain
to be developed between the police and the Gendarmerie in order to improve their
The redeployment movements between the two forces, launched in the 2000s, were not
taken to their conclusion and suffer from a lack of an overall strategy. The work relating to the
regional map must be relaunched, as the Ministry of the Interior agrees, to make it possible, in
consultation with elected officials, to establish a more consistent and more efficient network of
the two forces.
This work must also be based on a policing doctrine, articulated with the municipal police
forces, mentioned
as a “third force” in the white paper, and with the private security sector,
while taking into account the desired development of the National Police reserve.
In terms of public security, enhanced operational coordination in urban areas and regions
should be used more, while the judicial police should be systematically decompartmentalized.
For the latter, the welcome impetus given by the white paper aimed at evaluating the many
existing central offices to ensure the merits of their mission and of their leadership role should
be continued. Pooling could be further encouraged, as evidenced by the example of the
technical and scientific police. In this regard, the proposal to create a service with national
competence of technical and scientific police common to the police and the Gendarmerie is a
step in the right direction.
Finally, even if the human resources of these two forces differ in their status, their
management must allow each to improve career paths, including cross-over ones. It is
desirable to rebalance the budgetary resources of the police, as well as of the Gendarmerie,
by restricting the granting of new compensation benefits and by adjusting the share of
appropriations devoted to investments and equipment in the budget of the National Police
force, even if it means limiting the increase in staff to do so.
In its various publications, the Court has consistently upheld the idea that increasing the
National Police workforce should not be the priority response to the difficulties experienced by
the women and men who compose it in the exercise of their missions, nor to citizens' concerns
for their safety. The staff reinforcements have in fact made it possible to significantly improve
neither the presence on the public highway nor the efficiency of the judicial police. Other
pathways for action must be mobilized.
They focus primarily on better human resources management, with a simplified work
organization adapted to operational needs, training to anticipate the skills necessary to deal
with new forms of criminality, an allocation of staff that is capable of strengthening the
supervision of police officers and take into account regional specifics, and resources redirected
towards equipment and real estate in order to improve the working conditions and efficiency
of the police force.
The implementation of these solutions, accompanied by an improvement in the tools for
measuring the activity and performance of the National Police, will dictate the efficiency gains
and the effective improvement in the service quality that citizens, as well as the police, expect.
The Court has carried out a great deal of work in recent years on which it has relied, in
particular the following publications:
Appraisal of the National Gendarmerie’s attachment to the Ministry of the Interior (Le bilan du
rattachement de la gendarmerie nationale au ministère de l’intérieur),
report requested by the
Senate finance committee, May 2021;
Municipal Police Forces (Les polices municipales),
thematic public report, October 2020;
The organization of working time and overtime in the National Police (L’organisation du temps de
travail et les heures supplémentaires dans la police nationale),
observations to the minister,
October 2020;
The Paris police prefecture, reform to better ensure security in the Paris area (La préfecture de
police de Paris, réformer pour mieux assurer la sécurité dans l’agglomération parisienne),
public report, December 2019;
Operational reserves in the National Police and Gendarmerie (Les réserves opérationnelles dans
la police et la gendarmerie nationales)
communication to the National Assembly’s Finance, General
Economy and Budgetary Control Committee, November 2019;
The resources devoted to the fight against economic and financial crime (Les moyens consacrés
à la lutte contre la délinquance économique et financière),
observations to the minister, 12
December 2018;
Equipping the police, a pooling and streamlining e
ffort to be continued (L’équipement des forces
de l’ordre, un effort de mutualisation et de rationalisation à poursuivre),
communication to the
Senate finance committee, May 2018;
Private security activities: a growing contribution to public security, insufficient regulation (Les
activités privées de sécurité : une contribution croissante à la sécurité publique, une régulation
inclusion in the 2018 annual public report;
The situation and outlook for public finances (La situation et les perspectives des finances
June 2017;
The function of judicial police in the National Police and Gendarmerie (La fonction de police
judiciaire dans la police et la gendarmerie nationales),
observations to the minister, December
This report is available
on the Court of Accounts website: